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Comprehensive Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL)

General Statistics

  • States with comprehensive GDL programs in place report as much as a 40 percent drop in the number of fatal crashes among 16-year-old drivers.1
  • Although three components of GDL separately contribute to reduced crash rates (extended learner permit period, nighttime driving restrictions, and passenger restrictions) , GDL programs that combine all three may result in the highest crash reductions among 16-year-old drivers.2,3
  • Nearly all states have some components of GDL law in place to help protect teens from serious accidents during the first several months of driving.


1. Shope JT. Graduated Driver Licensing: Review of Evaluation Results since 2002. Journal of Safety Research. 2007; 38(2):165–176.

2.  Chen L, Baker SP, Li G. Graduated Driver Licensing Programs and Fatal Crashes of 16-year-old drivers. Pediatrics. 2006;188:56-62).

3. Williams AF. Contribution of the Components of Graduated Licensing to Crash Reductions. Journal of Safety Research. 2007; 38:177-184.

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