Learning to Drive with Autism
According to research conducted at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), two-thirds of 15- to 18-year-old higher-functioning autistic adolescents are currently driving or planning to drive, and 1 in 3 autistic individuals get licensed by age 21.
Autism is characterized by subtle impairments in social interaction, communication, motor skills and coordination and a difficulty in regulating emotions. Attention and a set of skills known as “executive functioning”-- related to processing and prioritizing information -- can also be affected.
Many of these capabilities come into play with young autistic drivers. Some, such as getting lost in the details of the road or difficulty recognizing the cues of other drivers, may raise the risk for unsafe driving behaviors. Others, such as a vigilance to follow the rules of the road, may promote safer driving behaviors.
One study suggests that autistic males may have slower hazard detection times and difficulties recognizing hazards involving people, while another recent study conducted at CHOP found that young autistic drivers have a similar crash risk but are much less likely to have their license suspended or to receive a traffic violation than other newly licensed drivers.
To determine readiness to drive for their autistic adolescents and young adults, families should first schedule a doctor’s appointment to address any concerns, such as communication or cognition issues. They may also want to seek the advice of a behavior therapist, an occupational therapist who specializes in driving, or a driver rehabilitation specialist who has training in working with individuals with neurodevelopmental differences. It’s also important to add driving goals to their adolescent's individualized education plan (IEA) and to follow up with school personnel.
To help guide families through the learning-to-drive process, parents of autistic adolescents and young adults who have supervised their practice driving recommend:
- Using practice and repetition
- Breaking down skills into individual steps
- Using video games and other driving simulation experiences
- Using verbal and visual scripts prior to drives
- Staying calm and patient
According to recent research conducted by CHOP published in the journal Autism in Adulthood, specialized driving instructors with experience teaching autistic adolescents to drive also recommend:
- Tap into state-level Vocational Rehabilitation Services to provide financial support for instruction.
- Identify and promote acquisition of independent life skills in diverse domains, including: personal hygiene, health, food preparation, housekeeping, and transportation.
- Provide plenty of parent-supervised practice driving in partnership with professional driving instruction: The TeenDrivingPlan Practice Guide offers evidence-based instruction in six driving environments, at night, and in inclement weather. Learn how to choose a driving school.
- Offer individualization of instruction tailored to the particular needs of your young autistic driver where available. Visit the Association for Driver Rehabilitation Specialists website to locate a qualified instructor in your area.
For more helpful information about helping your autistic adolescent or young adult stay mobile and connected, read this issue of Autism Dispatch, a newsletter from The Center for Autism Research at CHOP.