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Recommended Minimum GDL Provisions

Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs are a proven strategy to prevent teen driver crashes. Research shows that most teen crashes involve "rookie" mistakes. Teens need time to gain driving experience under low-risk conditions and with minimum distractions. That's why GDL provisions are in place—to reduce teen driver crash risk by limiting their exposure to certain hazards, including distractions such as passengers and cell phones. Based on new and existing research,here are the recommended minimum GDL provisions:

Learner’s Permit

Probationary/Intermediate  License

Full License

Beginning at age 16

No non-sibling teen passengers for 1st 6 months of independent driving


6-month holding period

(adult licensed driver must supervise new driver at all times)

No more than 1 non-sibling teen passenger for 2nd 6 months of independent driving


At least 50 hours adult-supervised driving practice, including 10 hours at night

No unsupervised driving between 10 p.m. and 5 a.m.


No in-car cell phone use

No in-car cell phone use

No in-car cell phone use until age 18

All but one state in the U.S. has a three-phase GDL program in place. No state, however, currently has all the minimum provisions as described above under law.


Recommended minimum GDL provisions guide practice.

Further reading:

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